Articles2

doi:10.1007/978-3-319-05546-6_13-1

Estimate of Lunar TiO2 and FeO with M3 Data

2021-01-01
Encyclopedia of Lunar Science
10.1007/978-3-319-05546-6_13-1
publisher:" + Springer ©2021 Springer International Publishing Switzerland + "
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-05546-6_13-1
©2021 Springer International Publishing Switzerland
doi:10.1007/978-3-319-02847-7_7-1

Fundamental Aspects of Coronal Mass Ejections

2021-01-01
Handbook of Cosmic Hazards and Planetary Defense
10.1007/978-3-319-02847-7_7-1
publisher:" + Springer ©2021 Springer International Publishing Switzerland + "
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-02847-7_7-1
©2021 Springer International Publishing Switzerland
AbstractThe most violent frequently reoccurring events in the solar system are coronal mass ejections. During a high energy cycle of the Sun, or solar max, these can happen as often as six times a day. If the most extreme of these events are focused so they directly impact Earth, the force of impact can be the equivalent of a huge number of nuclear bombs that can generate an electromagnetic pulse (EMP) with devastating effect. Such a pulse could cripple the world’s electrical grids and knock out most satellites in orbit. This chapter describes the so-called CME phenomenon and current understanding of why and how they occur. The final element of the chapter discusses the Earth’s naturally occurring protective systems that minimize the impact of these otherwise deadly occurrences.
doi:10.1007/978-3-642-36199-9_69-1

Dynamic Heterogeneity in Polymer Blends

2021-01-01
Encyclopedia of Polymeric Nanomaterials
10.1007/978-3-642-36199-9_69-1
publisher:" + Springer ©2021 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg + "
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-36199-9_69-1
©2021 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg
doi:10.1007/978-94-007-6165-0_248-4

Secondary Science Teacher Education

2021-01-01
Encyclopedia of Science Education
10.1007/978-94-007-6165-0_248-4
publisher:" + Springer ©2021 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht + "
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-6165-0_248-4
©2021 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht
doi:10.1007/978-94-007-6165-0_334-1

Science Olympiad

2021-01-01
Encyclopedia of Science Education
10.1007/978-94-007-6165-0_334-1
publisher:" + Springer ©2021 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht + "
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-6165-0_334-1
©2021 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht
doi:10.1007/978-1-4614-9213-9_106-1

Crater Wall Flow-Like Features (Moon, Asteroids)

2021-01-01
Encyclopedia of Planetary Landforms
10.1007/978-1-4614-9213-9_106-1
publisher:" + Springer ©2021 Springer Science+Business Media New York + "
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-9213-9_106-1
©2021 Springer Science+Business Media New York
doi:10.1007/978-94-007-6174-2_13-1

Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging

2021-01-01
Handbook of Photonics for Biomedical Engineering
10.1007/978-94-007-6174-2_13-1
publisher:" + Springer ©2021 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht + "
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-6174-2_13-1
©2021 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht
AbstractFluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) is a key fluorescence microscopy technique to map the environment and interaction of fluorescent probes. It can report on photophysical events that are difficult or impossible to observe by fluorescence intensity imaging, because FLIM is largely independent of the local fluorophore concentration and excitation intensity. Many FLIM applications relevant for biology concern the identification of Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) to study protein interactions and conformational changes. In addition, FLIM has been used to image viscosity, temperature, pH, refractive index, and ion and oxygen concentrations, all at the cellular level. The basic principles and recent advances in the application of FLIM, FLIM instrumentation, molecular probe, and FLIM detector development will be discussed.
doi:10.1007/978-94-007-6326-5_82-5

Luminescence, Martian Sediments

2021-01-01
Encyclopedia of Scientific Dating Methods
10.1007/978-94-007-6326-5_82-5
publisher:" + Springer ©2021 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht + "
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-6326-5_82-5
©2021 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht
AbstractMartian regolith
doi:10.1007/978-3-319-04507-8_2-1

High-Gain FEL Theory, Introduction

2021-01-01
Synchrotron Light Sources and Free-Electron Lasers
10.1007/978-3-319-04507-8_2-1
publisher:" + Springer ©2021 Springer International Publishing Switzerland + "
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-04507-8_2-1
©2021 Springer International Publishing Switzerland
AbstractThis chapter provides a detailed introduction to the 1D theory of high-gain free electron laser (FEL) and a brief overview of the 3D scaling function for FEL gain. For 1D theory, we start from the resonance condition and energy exchange between electron and radiation field. Their dynamics are then derived as the coupled Maxwell-Vlasov equations using a fluid model. In solving these coupled equations, we introduce some important FEL parameters and concepts, such as the dispersion relation, the FEL parameter ρ, the power gain length LG1 D , the saturation power P s, and the undulator saturation length Ls. We also discuss two operating modes of FEL, the amplifier and SASE (self-amplified spontaneous emission), as two typical cases of the initial value problem of the coupled Maxwell-Vlasov equations. We also discuss the radiation power, intensity fluctuations, bandwidth, and coherent length for SASE. In the last section, without further derivation, we briefly mention some results from the 3D FEL theory, e.g., the scaled power gain function G, the scaling parameter ρ and D, the energy spread, and the gain length calculation with scaling function. We assume the readers are familiar with classical mechanics and electrodynamics in the graduate level. Knowledge of integral transform and calculus of residues from mathematical physics are helpful but not essential.
doi:10.1007/978-1-4614-9213-9_460-2

Longitudinal Dunes (or Linear Dunes)

2021-01-01
Encyclopedia of Planetary Landforms
10.1007/978-1-4614-9213-9_460-2
publisher:" + Springer ©2021 Springer Science+Business Media New York + "
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-9213-9_460-2
©2021 Springer Science+Business Media New York
doi:10.1007/978-1-4614-9213-9_321-1

Rock avalanche

2021-01-01
Encyclopedia of Planetary Landforms
10.1007/978-1-4614-9213-9_321-1
publisher:" + Springer ©2021 Springer Science+Business Media New York + "
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-9213-9_321-1
©2021 Springer Science+Business Media New York
doi:10.1007/978-1-4614-9213-9_407-2

Transitional Crater (Simple/Complex)

2021-01-01
Encyclopedia of Planetary Landforms
10.1007/978-1-4614-9213-9_407-2
publisher:" + Springer ©2021 Springer Science+Business Media New York + "
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-9213-9_407-2
©2021 Springer Science+Business Media New York
doi:10.1007/978-1-4614-9213-9_465-1

Antipodal Terrain

2021-01-01
Encyclopedia of Planetary Landforms
10.1007/978-1-4614-9213-9_465-1
publisher:" + Springer ©2021 Springer Science+Business Media New York + "
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-9213-9_465-1
©2021 Springer Science+Business Media New York
doi:10.1007/978-3-319-02847-7_30-1

Cluster Technical Challenges and Scientific Achievements

2021-01-01
Handbook of Cosmic Hazards and Planetary Defense
10.1007/978-3-319-02847-7_30-1
publisher:" + Springer ©2021 Springer International Publishing Switzerland + "
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-02847-7_30-1
©2021 Springer International Publishing Switzerland
AbstractThe Cluster mission has been operated successfully for 14 years. As the first science mission comprising four identical spacecraft, Cluster has faced many challenges during its lifetime. Initially, during the selection process where strong competition with SOHO was almost fatal to one of them, finally both missions were merged into the Solar Terrestrial Science Programme with strong support from NASA. The next challenge came during the manufacturing process where the task to produce four spacecraft in the time usually allocated to one demanded considerable flexibility in the production process. The first launch of Ariane V was not successful, and the rocket exploded 40s after takeoff. The great challenge for the Cluster scientists was to convince ESA, the National Agencies, and the science community that Cluster should be rebuilt identical to the original one. The fast rebuilding phase, in 3 years, and the 2nd launch on two Soyuz rockets, paved the way to numerous ESA launches afterward. Finally in the operational phase, the challenge was to operate four spacecraft with the funding for one, to solve serious anomalies, and to extend the spacecraft lifetime, now seven times its initial duration with some vital elements such as batteries not working at all. After the technical challenges, the key scientific achievements will be presented. The main goal of the Cluster mission is to study in three dimensions small-scale plasma structures in key plasma regions of the Earth’s geospace environment: solar wind and bow shock, magnetopause, polar cusps, magnetotail, plasmasphere, and auroral zone. Science highlights are presented such as ripples on the bow shock, 3D current measurements and Kelvin-Helmholtz waves at the magnetopause, bifurcated current sheet in the magnetotail, and the first measurement of the electron pressure tensor near a site of magnetic reconnection. In addition, Cluster results on understanding the impact of coronal mass ejections (CME) on the Earth’s environment will be shown. Finally, how the mission solved the challenge of distributing huge quantity of data through the Cluster Science Data System (CSDS) and the Cluster Archive will be presented. Those systems were implemented to provide, for the first time for a plasma physics mission, a permanent and public archive of all the high-resolution data from all instruments.
doi:10.1007/978-3-319-04508-5_29-1

Diamagnetic Behavior of Porous Silicon

2021-01-01
Handbook of Porous Silicon
10.1007/978-3-319-04508-5_29-1
publisher:" + Springer ©2021 Springer International Publishing Switzerland + "
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-04508-5_29-1
©2021 Springer International Publishing Switzerland
AbstractAfter a brief introduction to diamagnetism, the magnetic properties of silicon are briefly outlined. The magnetic behavior of silicon consists of a diamagnetic and a paramagnetic term, whereas the diamagnetism predominates. Furthermore, various types of porous silicon like as-etched and oxidized porous silicon are discussed, and the dependence of the diamagnetism on the surface treatment and thus on the paramagnetic defects is outlined. Nanostructuring of silicon results in a modification of the magnetic behavior with reduced diamagnetic contribution, and a further posttreatment of the samples leads to a smaller diamagnetic susceptibility.
doi:10.1007/978-3-319-02847-7_57-1

Early Solar and Heliophysical Space Missions

2021-01-01
Handbook of Cosmic Hazards and Planetary Defense
10.1007/978-3-319-02847-7_57-1
publisher:" + Springer ©2021 Springer International Publishing Switzerland + "
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-02847-7_57-1
©2021 Springer International Publishing Switzerland
AbstractThe sun is the most important element in the Solar System. Without it life would not exist. When the sun dies in an explosive nova billions of years in the future, this will be the end of existence as now known to humanity. Thus heliophysics, or the understanding of the nuclear fusion processes of the sun and its overall dynamics, has been one of the top priorities for astronomers, astrophysicists, and scientists even before the start of the Space Age. With the ability to put telescopes, gamma and X-ray detectors, spectrometers, coronagraphs, and other sensing instruments into space, there have been a wealth of space projects designed to study the sun and its operation over the past 50 years. There have been missions from NASA, the US Navy and Air Force supported by observatories, research universities, and key research institutes. Further there have been important civilian and military space research missions from France, Germany, Japan, and other countries as well. This chapter seeks to cover in a summary fashion many of the earlier solar and heliophysics research as well as military backed missions. These pioneering efforts have helped to unlock some of the mysteries of the sun’s internal operations and have provided insights that have helped us to design better solar probes for current space experiments and monitoring spacecraft currently studying the sun.This chapter starts with discussing a number of the solar-related experiments carried out by the Orbiting Solar Observatories, the Solwind (P78-1) Project, and Helios-A and Helios-B that represented the very first solar probes. Next the Skylab experiments carried out by onboard astronaut experimenters are described. This is followed by recapping key elements that come from the following space probes: the Solar Maximum Mission, the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS), and the Active Cavity Radiometer Irradiance Monitor (ACRIM) Satellite. Data from these sources have produced significant information on total solar irradiance and how the sun’s power output actually varies about 0.1 % over time. This is followed by information on the Coriolis satellite, the Ulysses satellite, the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI), Windsat, the Yohkoh satellite (also known as Solar-A) and Hinode (also known as Solar-B), and the Transition Region and Coronal Explorer (TRACE) satellite.
doi:10.1007/978-3-319-04508-5_81-1

Porous Silicon for Microdevices and Microsystems

2021-01-01
Handbook of Porous Silicon
10.1007/978-3-319-04508-5_81-1
publisher:" + Springer ©2021 Springer International Publishing Switzerland + "
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-04508-5_81-1
©2021 Springer International Publishing Switzerland
AbstractA literature survey is made of the various uses of both macroporous and mesoporous silicon in individual microdevices and complex microsystems. The material has been used as a silicon wafer processing tool where it is sacrificial: in a passive role where it provides, for example, thermal or electrical isolation and in an active role where it performs a range of functions. Examples include delivering drugs, sensing, emitting light, storing hydrogen, providing filtration, or having a catalytic role.
doi:10.1007/978-3-319-04508-5_46-1

Magnetic Characterization Methods for Porous Silicon

2021-01-01
Handbook of Porous Silicon
10.1007/978-3-319-04508-5_46-1
publisher:" + Springer ©2021 Springer International Publishing Switzerland + "
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-04508-5_46-1
©2021 Springer International Publishing Switzerland
AbstractCharacterization methods for magnetic materials, especially nanostructured ones such as mesoporous silicon, are reviewed. Besides magnetometers, which are one of the most important instruments to investigate magnetic properties, magnetic force microscopy and magneto-optical microscopy are briefly outlined. Magnetometers measure in an integrative way over the entire sample, whereas magnetic force microscopy and magneto-optical methods probe the magnetic properties of a local region or an individual nanostructure. With magnetometers in general, field- and temperature-dependent measurements can be performed; magneto-optical microscopy can be used to get knowledge about the domain structure, and with magnetic force microscopy, the magnetization reversal of, e.g., a nanowire, can be studied.
doi:10.1007/978-3-319-04508-5_72-1

Ohmic and Rectifying Contacts to Porous Silicon

2021-01-01
Handbook of Porous Silicon
10.1007/978-3-319-04508-5_72-1
publisher:" + Springer ©2021 Springer International Publishing Switzerland + "
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-04508-5_72-1
©2021 Springer International Publishing Switzerland
AbstractPorous silicon (PS) is a promising material for photonic, optoelectronic, and sensor devices. However, achieving stable metallic contacts to porous silicon has been a challenge. Oxidation of the Si-Hx bond on porous silicon surface on exposure to aerial atmosphere is the main reason of the instability. This review highlights the attempts made to modify the PS surface and make stable ohmic and rectifying contacts. Data on different metals, alloys, and conducting polymers utilized to treat the surface of porous silicon prior to the formation of ohmic and rectifying contacts are provided in tabular form. The methods deployed to deposit the contact materials on porous silicon are also summarized. The performance of noble metal treatment of porous silicon surface by electroless deposition is highlighted.
doi:10.1007/978-3-319-01905-5_5-1

A Brief Introduction to Quantum Mechanics

2021-01-01
Handbook of Materials Structures, Properties, Processing and Performance
10.1007/978-3-319-01905-5_5-1
publisher:" + Springer ©2021 Springer International Publishing Switzerland + "
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-01905-5_5-1
©2021 Springer International Publishing Switzerland
AbstractUtilizing the wave-optics equation derived by Maxwell, E. Schröinger inserted the de Broglie relationship to derive a time-independent equation with an embedded wave-particle dualism and energy quantization. This chapter illustrates the Schrödinger equation and its application to electrons composing atoms, an equation of motion for an electron. Simple illustrations examine electron energy quantization in atoms as well as so-called “free” electrons in a volumetric confinement such as an electrical conductor. This brief introduction to quantum mechanical principles as these relate to atomic structure represented by electrons occupying quantized energy states serves as a precursor to understanding matter or materials at the atomic or ionic level.